Методическое пособие по английскому языку для самостоятельной работы студентов дневного и заочного отделений колледжа




НазваниеМетодическое пособие по английскому языку для самостоятельной работы студентов дневного и заочного отделений колледжа
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Примеры образования утвердительных, отрицательных и вопросительных форм:

+ My brothers study at school.

My mother cooks very well.

- My brothers don’t study at school.

My mother doesn’t cook very well.

? 1) общий

Do my brothers study at school?

Ответ: Yes, they do. My brothers study at school.

Does my mother cook very well?

Ответ: Yes, she does. My mother cooks very well.

2) альтернативный

Do my brothers study at school or at college?

Ответ: My brothers study at school.

Does my mother or father cook very well?

Ответ: My mother cooks very well.

3) a)разделительный (+)

My brothers study at school, don’t they?

Ответ: Yes, they do. My brothers study at school.

My mother cooks very well, doesn’t she?

Ответ: Yes, she does. My mother cooks very well.

b) разделительный (-)

My brothers don’t study at school, do they?

Ответ: Yes, they do. They don’t study at school.

My mother doesn’t cook very well, does she?

Ответ: Yes, she does. My mother doesn’t cook very well.

4) a) специальный (at school)

Where do my brothers study?

b) специальный (study)

What do my brothers do at school?

c) специальный (very well)

How does my mother cook?

d) специальный (cooks)

What does my mother do very well?

5) вопрос к подлежащему

Who studies at school?

Who cooks very well?

Употребление Present Indefinite:

  1. Для выражения обычного, повторяющегося или постоянного действия, констатации факта в настоящем времени. Часто в таких предложениях используются наречия неопределённого времени: usually – обычно, always – всегда, sometimes – иногда, often – часто, seldom – редко, as a rule – как правило, every day (every week, every year, …) – каждый день (каждую неделю, каждый год), twice a year – дважды в год,regularly – регулярно.

Например: I usually get up at 7 o’clock. – Обычно я встаю в 7 часов.

He doesn’t smoke. – Он не курит.

The Earth goes round the Sun. – Земля вращается вокруг солнца.

  1. Для выражения действия, совершающегося в момент речи, с глаголами, не употребляющимися во временах группы Continuous (to see – видеть, to hear – слышать, to understand – понимать, to know – знать, to love – любить, to hate – ненавидеть, to prefer – предпочитать, to want – хотеть и др.)

Например: Sorry, but I don’t understand what you mean. – Извините, но я не понимаю, что вы имеете в виду.

  1. Для выражения будущего действия в обстоятельственных придаточных предложениях времени и условия (вместо Future Indefinite), которые вводятся союзами: if – если, unless – если не, when – когда, till, until – до тех пор пока, as soon as – как только, as long as – пока, before – прежде чем и т.д.)

Например: I’ll come after I do my homework. – Я приду после того, как сделаю домашнее задание.

  1. Когда речь идёт о расписании, транспорте, сеансах в кинотеатре и т.д.

Например: What time does the film begin? – Когда начинается фильм?

The train arrives at 7 p.m. – Поезд прибывает в 7 вечера.
Упражнения для закрепления грамматики:
Exercise 1. Выберите нужную форму глагола.

  1. I (speak/speaks) English.

  2. He (speak/speaks) Russian.

  3. John (have/has) two brothers.

  4. We (have/has) a new car.

  5. My brothers (read/reads) English books.

  6. I (am/is/are) very happy.

  7. My mother (work/works) at school.

  8. My parents (am/is/are) at home now.

  9. The table (stand/stands) near the window.

  10. His father (am/is/are) in London now.


Exercise 2. Замените подлежащее и произведите необходимые изменения в сказуемом. Обратите внимание на произношение окончания –s.

  1. You watch TV too much. (The boy).

  2. We realize the danger of doing it. (He).

  3. The children usually go home after school. (The child).

  4. We arrange everything for the New Year party. (Bill).

  5. I always help them. (My mother).

  6. They look very well. (Jane).

  7. The rivers freeze in winter. (This river).

  8. They often quarrel with parents. (My sister).

  9. My parents read newspapers every morning. (My father).

  10. I trust you. (Your teacher).


Exercise 3. Постройте предложения.

I

You

He

She

We

They

Our friends

My parents

My roommate

The passengers

Young girls

Her brother

Old people

Our teacher

It

usually

normally

regularly

occasionally

sometimes

at times

often

seldom

hardly ever

never

frequently

from time to time

once a week

twice a year

always

go to a dance

use their car

gives us a lot of homework

comes late for classes

use the underground

takes a shower

get up very late

buy tickets in advance

go to the country

makes mistakes in translation

rains here on Sundays

eat meat or fish for supper

go to a restaurant

write letters to us

sends her flowers


Exercise 4. Постройте предложения при помощи союзов but или and.

My parents

to like coffee

not to like tea

My friend

to play the piano

not to play the guitar

He

to eat meat

not to eat fish

Her children

to watch detective films

not to watch cartoons

My mother

to read historical novels

not to read love stories

My son

to listen to rock-music

not to like pop-music

It

to rain

not to snow

Caroline

to speak English

not to speak German

Tom and Ted

to study at college

not to study at the University

I

to clean the floor with a vacuum-cleaner

not to sweep the floor



Exercise 5. Дайте краткие и полные положительные и отрицательные ответы на вопросы.

  1. Do you often quarrel with your parents?

  2. Does your mother always understand you?

  3. Are you a happy family?

  4. Have you many friends at college?

  5. Do you have breakfast every morning?

  6. Does your friend trust you?

  7. Is your mother proud of you?

  8. Do you miss your sister?

  9. Has your friend good relations with her mother-in-law?

10) Are you a faithful friend?
Exercise 6. Задайте вопросы к предложениям:

a)общий; b)альтернативный; c)разделительный; d)специальный (к выделенным словам); e)вопрос к подлежащему.

  • My mother translates English texts very well.

  • The pictures are on the wall.

  • Usually my sister has 5 lessons at school.

  • My parents often give me advice.

  • Children have many new toys.


Exercise 7. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в Present Indefinite.

  1. I generally (to get up) at 8 o’clock.

  2. My friend (to speak) English very well.

  3. He (to be) always very busy. He (to work) much.

  4. He (not to know) the answer to this question. You (to know)?

  5. The train (to arrive) at 7 a.m.

  6. She (not to get up) early. She (to like) to sleep. She (to be) a sleepy-head.

  7. John (not to study). He (to work) in a laboratory.

  8. You (to get) to the University by bus?

  9. My brother (to have) a new car. He (to drive) it very fast.

  10. How often you (to go) to the library?

  11. When you (to go) to the University: in the morning or in the evening?

  12. My daughter (to read) not very well. She (to be) little.

  13. You (to play) football or basketball better?

  14. The table (to stand) near the window.

  15. The chairs (to stand) near the table.


Раздел 4. My Friends (Мои друзья).
Лексика:

1. Friendship - Дружба

a friend = a mate- друг, товарищ

a school mate- школьный друг

a class mate- одноклассник

a group mate- одногруппник

a close friend –близкий друг

faithful – верный

devoted -преданный

to get acquainted with smb. – познакомиться с кем-нибудь

to make friends with smb. – стать друзьями с кем-нибудь

to know smb. (each other) since 1995 (since the 10 th form, since childhood, …) – знать кого-нибудь (друг друга) с 1995 (с 10-го класса, с детства, …)

to have been friends for 8 years (for many years, for a long time, … ) – дружить 8 лет ( много лет, долгое время)

PROVERBS: A friend in need is a friend indeed. – Друг познаётся в беде.

^ Friendship is stronger than steel. –Дружба крепче, чем сталь.

One for all and all for one. – Один за всех, и все за одного.

Old friends and old wine are best. – Старый друг лучше новых двух.

^ They are rich that have friends. – Не имей сто рублей, а имей сто друзей.
2. Текст

My Friend
Friendship is a very important thing in people’s lives. It is so nice to have a person you can rely on. Close friends usually have similar ideas and beliefs. They understand, respect and trust each other. Your best friend always helps you when you have problems or troubles. As the English proverb says: « A friend in need is a friend indeed». I fully agree with it.

As for me, I can’t say I have many friends, though I’m rather sociable and communicative and easy going. The fact is, I have many acquaintances, but the most of them can’t be called friends. I think it’s normal. Friends can’t be many (I mean real friends). So, I have some friends. They make my life more interesting and enjoyable.

Now I would like to tell you about my best friend. Her name is Helen. We made friends five years ago. We are not of the same age. She is two years younger then I. She is not of age yet. She is only sixteen. I think she looks her age. Helen is a pupil of the tenth form.

Now some words about Helen’s appearance. She is neither tall nor short. I would say, she is of average height. Helen is fond of dancing. That’s why she has a nice figure. She is slim and stylish. Besides, she has a nice gait and holds herself upright. She never stoops. She looks after her body and figure. If only she puts on some weight, she goes on a diet at once. What a strong will she has! I envy her, to tell the truth.

It’s common knowledge, that the face is the index of mind. As for Helen, she has rather small features, a snub nose and a fair complexion. Her face is round and her small hazel eyes are deeply-set. Her eyebrows are bushy, but beautifully shaped. Her lashes are long. Helen has thin lips and a small chin. The peculiar thing about her face is that she has freckles. She always worries about it. But I think, they don’t spoil her. Helen is a great fusser and exaggerates everything. Besides, there’s one more thing that makes her charming and pretty. I mean her dimples on her cheeks.

One more peculiarity about Helen’s appearance. You see, she always pays much attention to her hair. That’s why she always has her hair done. She wears her hair shoulder length. She has a fringe and parts her hair sometimes on the right or on the left and sometimes in the middle. As for its colour, it’s really difficult to say, because she changes it very often. Helen doesn’t like to be the same.

Helen uses make-up. It makes her even more pleasant-looking. I always say to her that she is as pretty as a picture. You see, her mother is a very attractive woman. And Helen is the living image of her mother. They are as like as two pears.

The English proverb says: “Appearances are deceptive.” I disagree with it, because in the case with my friend Helen, for example, this proverb doesn’t work. Helen has a brilliant appearance and a fine character.

Helen is an active and energetic person. She can’t bear just sitting and doing nothing. It makes her impatient and restless. She always knows, what she wants. Besides, Helen is hard-working, organized and does well at school. She is very honest, just and kind. These are her strong points. I trust her a lot and I’m sure that I can rely on her in any situation. She never lets people down. This is the main advantage of her character.

But as any person Helen has not only advantages, but disadvantages as well. The main drawback of her character is that she is stubborn sometimes. The fact is, she was born under the zodiac sign of the Scorpion. It explains much in her character.

According to the horoscope, Helen is a very energetic person. That’s why she has a wide range of interests. As I’ve already mentioned, she is fond of dancing. Besides, she is interested in music. That’s why whenever she has an opportunity she visits concerts of her favourite singers. Helen is fond of sports. Sometimes I don’t understand how she manages to do all these things.

My best friend and I have much in common. We have the same interests, the same tastes, the same likes and dislikes and even hobbies.

We both like to wear jeans and sweaters. We hate skirts. Helen as well as I has a sweet tooth. We are fond of cakes, chocolates, sweets and so on and so forth. As for me, I am not an early riser. Helen is a good sleeper too. We both prefer pop-music. Our favourite season is summer. I like it because my birthday is in summer. As for Helen, she is crazy on the village, where her Granny lives, on the river, where she is ready to spend hours, on the forests, where she likes to gather berries and mushrooms. To make the long story short, everything I like she, enjoys too; everything she hates, irritates me as well.

Helen and I are very close friends. She is my twin soul. It’ s no wonder, that we spend much time together, help each other to do our homework, go to discos, walk in the park and so on. We like to spend our time going for a walk in the evenings, listening to music, watching video looking through fashion magazines. Sometimes we go to the cinema walk around the centre of our town, visiting small cafes or shops. We can talk for hours about all sorts of things: politics, love, boys, teachers and school. We discuss everyday problems, films, television programmes, books and what not.

As for our relations, I must say we don’t quarrel with each other. Well, perhaps, it is not at all true. Certainly it’s not as good as all that. Sometimes we do quarrel. But it happens very, very seldom. And, if there is some misunderstanding between us we try to make peace as soon as possible, because both of us can’t live without each other. No wonder! It’s rather difficult to live without a person, whom you can trust, whom you can rely on, who respects you.

Unfortunately, we are far from each other now. You see, I live in another city now, because I have entered a University this year. So we don’t see each other very often. Of course, we write letters to each other, but in spite of it I miss Helen very much. Without her I feel lonely. As I’ve said, Helen is a very cheerful, talkative and energetic person. Now, being far from her, I miss her jokes, her stories and energy. She is just like my sister. She knows everything about me and she is always ready to help.

I’m sure Helen and I are friends forever. Nothing and nobody can destroy our friendship.
Грамматика:
1. Степени сравнения прилагательных.
Имена прилагательные, как и в русском языке, образуют две степени сравнения: сравнительную и превосходную. Основная форма прилагательного не выражает сравнения и называется положительной степенью.





положительная

сравнительная

превосходная

односложные

big -большой

bigger - больше

the biggest – самый большой, наибольший

двусложные, оканчиваю-щиеся на y,-er,-ow,-ble

happy-счастливый
clever – умный
narrow – узкий
noble - благородный

happier-счастливее
cleverer – умнее
narrower – уже
nobler–благороднее, более благородный

the happiest - самый счастливый

the cleverest - самый умный

the narrowest – самый узкий

the noblest - самый благородный

большинство двусложных

active - активный

more active – активнее, более активный

the most active – самый активный

состоящие из трёх и более слогов

difficult - трудный

more difficult – труднее, более трудный

the most difficult – самый трудный

исключения

good – хороший
bad – плохой
little – маленький, мало
much/many-много
far – далеко
old – старый, старший

better – лучше
worse – хуже
less – меньше

more – больше
farther – дальше, более далёкий

older – более старый

elder – старше (о возрасте)

the best – наилучший, самый хороший

the worst – самый плохой, наихудший

the least – самый маленький, меньше всего

the most – больше всего

the farthest – дальше всего, самый дальний

the oldest – самый старый

the eldest – самый старший (о возрасте)
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