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Даричева М.В. Практикум по английскому языку для студентов-дизайнеров: Практикум / М.В. Даричева. – Н.Новгород: НГПУ, 2012. – 34 с.
Практикум предназначен для проведения практических занятий по английскому языку у студентов 2, 3 курсов, очной формы обучения, специальности 072500.62 Дизайн, а также у студентов 2 курса, очной формы обучения, специальности 051000.62 Профессиональное обучение (Дизайн). Данное пособие содержит задания, способствующие усвоению профессионально-иноязычного лексического материала и закреплению умений профессионально-ориентированного чтения, письма и говорения.
© Даричева М.В., 2012
© НГПУ, 2012
Данный практикум содержит подборку текстов по темам «Стили искусства» и «Виды дизайна», а также систему предтекстовых и послетекстовых упражнений, которые обеспечивают эффективное практическое овладение иностранным языком. Все задания способствуют достижению основных целей обучения иностранному языку студентов-дизайнеров, а именно расширение профессионально-иноязычного тезауруса, развитие навыков и умений чтения и перевода профессионально-ориентированной литературы, развитие профессионально-иноязычной устной речи. Содержание пособия соответствует утвержденным рабочим программам по предмету «Иностранный язык» с учетом специфики неязыкового вуза.
1. Read and translate the words
1) … - an artistic movement begun in Italy in 1909, which strongly rejected traditional forms and embraced the energy and dynamism of modern technology. Launched by Filippo Marinetti, it had effectively ended by 1918 but was widely influential, particularly in Russia on figures such as Malevich and Mayakovsky.
2) … - a style of painting, which began in France in the 1860s, in which the artist tries to represent the effects of light on an object, person, area of countryside, etc.
3) … - art that does not attempt to represent external, recognizable reality but seeks to achieve its effect using shapes, forms, colors, and textures.
4) … - a type of modern art that started in the 1960s and uses images and objects from ordinary life.
5) … - the heavily decorated style in buildings, art and music that was popular in Europe in the 17th century and the early part of the 18th century.
6) … - a style of decoration that was especially popular in the 1930s and uses simple shapes and lines and strong colours.
7) … - a style of building which was common in Europe between the 12th and the 16th centuries, and which has pointed arches and windows, high ceilings and tall, thin columns.
8) … - a style of art, music and literature that was common in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which describes the beauty of nature and emphasizes the importance of human emotions.
9) … - a style in painting, sculpture and building, based on particular standards in Greek and Roman art, which was especially popular during the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe.
10) … - a style or movement in the arts that aims to depart significantly from classical and traditional forms.
11) … - a movement in sculpture and painting which arose in the 1950s, characterized by the use of simple, massive forms.
12) … - a style of modern art in which an object or person is shown as a set of geometric shapes and as if seen from many different angles at the same time.
13) … - the revival of European art and literature under the influence of classical models in the 14th-16th centuries.
14) … - a style (chiefly in architecture and interior design) that uses materials, such as steel, glass, and plastic, that are associated with industrial use.
15) … - an artistic or literary movement or style characterized by the representation of people or things as they actually are.
I think that the building is constructed in the style of … , because … .
I think that the picture is painted in the style of … , because … .
Cubism - a style of modern art in which an object or person is shown as a set of geometric shapes and as if seen from many different angles at the same time.
I think that the picture is painted in the style of cubism, because the object (the person) is shown as a set of geometric shapes.
1. Read the following words. Mind their meaning
immediate непосредственный, немедленный
ribbed ребристый, рифленый
austere строгий, простой, чистый
perfection безупречность, совершенство
transept поперечный неф
lantern фонарь верхнего света
spectator зритель, очевидец
to succeed ( - ed; - ed) следовать за чем-либо, наследовать
to evolve ( - ed; - ed) развиваться
to derive ( - ed; - ed) происходить
to find (found; found) находить
to cause ( - ed; - ed) вызывать, являться результатом
to encourage ( - ed; - ed) ободрять, поощрять, поддерживать
to become (became; become) становиться
to assume ( - ed; - ed) принимать, предполагать
to demolish ( - ed; - ed) разрушать, сносить
style, classical, dominant, to characterize, order, arch, symmetrical, harmony, composition, proportion, human, perspective, expression, mass, interior, exterior, element, to formulate, column, portion, sphere, manner, façade, plan, altar, diameter, motif
1) средство a) style b) device c) composition
2) зритель a) spectator b) interior c) successor
3) ширина a) diameter b) width c) height
4) понимание a) portion b) manner c) comprehension
5) трактат a) treatise b) motif c) order
6) длина a) exterior b) length c) perspective
7) поперечный неф a) pilaster b) sphere c) transept
A непосредственный, строгий, ребристый, развиваться, вызывать, происходить, предполагать, наследовать, разрушать, поддерживать
В to assume, to encourage, ribbed, to demolish, to derive, immediate, to succeed, to evolve, austere, to cause
A architectural B buildings
rebirth of classical art; to derive from two sources; ancient classical buildings; to use classical orders; proportions of the human body; pictorial device of perspective; definition of architectural space; immediate and full comprehension; well–organized urban spaces; great skill; interior of buildings; linear perspective; basic element; fluted pilasters; unribbed vaults; the austere façade; the highest degree of perfection; Christian world
This architectural style developed in early 15th century Italy during the rebirth of classical art and learning. It succeeded the Gothic as the style dominant in all of Europe after the mid 16th century into classicism.
Knowledge of the classical style in architecture was derived during the Renaissance from two sources: the ancient classical buildings, particularly in Italy but also in France and Spain and the treatise “De architectura” by the Roman architect Vitruvius. Initially it was characterized by the use of the classical orders, round arches, and symmetrical composition.
The Renaissance architects found a harmony between the proportions of the human body and those of their architecture. There was even a relationship between architectural proportions and the Renaissance pictorial device of perspective.
The concern1 of these architects for proportion caused that clear, measured2 expression and definition of architectural space and mass that differentiates the Renaissance style from the Gothic and encourages3 in the spectator an immediate and full comprehension of the building.
Churches, palaces, gardens, and well-organized open, urban spaces are the architectural works most often associated with this time. Great skill was expressed in ordering the interior of buildings, frequently using the same motifs as had been traditionally associated with the exterior.
Filippo Brunelleschi4 (1377-1446) is said to have created the Renaissance. In the early 15th century he formulated linear perspective, which was to become a basic element of Renaissance art. His basic vocabulary – fluted pilasters carrying entablatures5, columns supporting arches, unribbed vaults which are portions of the surface of a sphere – appears in his brilliant work, Ospedale degli Innocenti6 (1419-51) in Florence. It was the first building in the Renaissance manner.
The austere Tuscan Doric7 façade of Donato Bramante’s (1444-1514) Tempietto San Pietro8 in Montorio (1502) symbolized the beginning of the early 16th century High Renaissance in Rome.
The Italian Renaissance is assumed to have achieved the highest degree of perfection at that time. In 1505 Pope9 Julius II decided to demolish Old St. Peter’s and to build St. Peter’s Cathedral, the work of many architects, beginning with Bramante, whose ground plan10 was later changed from a Greek cross to a Latin cross. St. Peter’s Cathedral is the largest church in the high Christian world. It has 29 altars in addition to the high altar, interior length 187 m., width at front, 26,5 m., length of transept, 137 m. The dome (diameter, 42 m., height, 123 m. to the top of the lantern) was built by Michelangelo.
1) The Renaissance is assumed to have reinitiated classical details.
2) The Renaissance succeeded the Baroque.
3) The Renaissance was characterized by the use of asymmetrical composition.
4) It is stated that Bramante was the initiator of the Renaissance.
5) It was Filippo Brunelleschi who formulated linear perspective.
6) St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome is assumed to represent the High Renaissance.
1) The Renaissance developed in…
a) France b) Italy c) Russia
2) The treatise “De architectura” was a handbook of the … architects.
a) Renaissance b) Baroque c) Gothic
3) The Renaissance is characterized by measured expression and definition of…
a) pointed arches b) architectural space c) curved surfaces
4) Linear perspective was formulated in the early … century.
a) 14th b) 15th c) 16th
5) The plans for St. Peter’s Cathedral were prepared by…
a) Brunelleschi b) Pope Julius II c) Bramante
1) When and where did the Renaissance begin?
2) What were the main sources of knowledge of the classical style in architecture?
3) What was the basic element of Renaissance art?
4) Who was the first to formulate and show the Renaissance system of perspective?
5) What was the first building in the Renaissance manner?
6) What is the largest Church in the Christian world?
7) What phase of the Renaissance does the St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome represent?
1) Представители этого стиля использовали в архитектуре рифленые пилястры, гладкие своды, колонны, поддерживающие арки.
2) Данный стиль утверждает принципы классического, античного искусства.
3) Архитектурными образцами, спроектированными в этом стиле, являются церкви, дворцы, хорошо организованные городские пространства.
4) Лучшими традициями этого стиля являются классические ордеры, круглые арки, симметричная композиция, линейная перспектива.
5) Гармония между пропорциями человеческого тела и архитектурой отличает данный стиль.
6) Самым ярким свидетельством данного стиля является Собор св. Петра в Риме.
7) Типичными чертами стиля являются архитектурные пропорции и перспектива.
8) Представителями Ренессанса в архитектуре являются Филиппо Брунеллески и Донато Браманте.
5. Use the following clichés and write the retelling of the text “The Renaissance”
This text is about …
This topic (subject, problem) presents some (much) interest for those who study…
This topic (subject, problem) presents some importance for those who are interested in …
The author points out / mentions / says / emphasizes / draws our attention to the fact that …
It is necessary to say / mention / emphasize that …
It should be said / mentioned / pointed out / stressed / emphasized that…
Firstly / secondly / finally
Besides / also / moreover / then / after that
On the one hand…, on the other hand… / however
The author gives some interesting / useful examples of …
There are some interesting / useful examples illustrating …
To sum it up / In conclusion, I’d like to say that …
The author arrives to the following conclusions…
Baroque and Rococo
Baroque and late Baroque, or Rococo, are terms applied to European art of the period from the early 17th century to the mid 18th century.
The word “baroque” was derived from the Italian word “baroque”. This word also meant irregular or imperfect form, especially with reference to pearl.
The Baroque style is characterized by spatially complex compositions, interpenetration11 of oval spaces, curved surfaces and remarkable use of decoration broken pediments, paired or coupled columns or pilasters. The Baroque art was essentially concerned with vivid12 colours, hidden13 light sources, luxurious materials and elaborate14, contrasting surface textures. There was a tremendous richness of motifs-festoons of flowers and fruits, masks, scrolls, wreaths and weapons. During the Baroque period, architecture, painting and sculpture were integrated into decorative ensembles. Architects used sculpture to support the members of a building, painters decorated the walls and vaults of churches with false architectural perspectives, sculptors introduced colour in their works in the spirit of a painter.
The Baroque rapidly developed into two separate forms: the strongly Roman Catholic counties (Italy, Spain, Portugal, Flanders, Bohemia, Southern Germany, Australia and Poland) tended toward freer and more active architectural forms and surfaces; in Protestant regions (England, the Netherlands and the remainder of Northern Europe) architecture was more restrained15 and developed a quiet monumentality impressive in its refinement16.
The greatest works of this style are Dome des Invalides by Hardouin-Mansart 17(1); the church of Santa Susanna (2); Versailles (3); Royal Palace in Madrid (4); Royal Palace at Caserta (5).
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)
The Rococo is assumed to have been the late phase of the Baroque, primarily French in origin. The style was first inspired by the shell-encrusted artificial fountains and grottoes at Versailles. This style refined the robust18 architecture of the 17th century to suit elegant 18th century tastes. Vivid colours were replaced by pastel shades; diffuse19 light flooded the building volume; violent surface relief was replaced by smooth flowing masses with emphasis only at isolated points. One can find intermingling20 of shells, C - and S - scrolls21, rocks, seaweed22, ribbons and carving and irregular acanthus foliation23. Churches and palaces still demonstrated an integration of the three arts, but the building structure was lightened to render interiors graceful and ethereal24. Rococo architects reduced column size to a minimum. In churches, the ceilings of side aisles were raised to the height of the nave ceiling unify the space from wall to wall.
The finest examples of the Rococo style are Church of the "Madonna del Carmine", Turin, Italy (1732) (1); The Steinhausen Church of Pilgrimage, Germany (1728) (2); Saint - Jacques, Luneville, France (1730) (3).
1) 2) 3)
1) Baroque is a term applied to European Art of the early 15th century.
2) The word “baroque” was used to describe an irregular or imperfectly shaped pearl only.
3) The Baroque style was concerned with bright colours, hidden light sources and contrasting surface textures.
4) Cheap materials were used during the Baroque period.
5) The Rococo is considered to be the late phase of the Baroque.
6) The Rococo style is assumed to have appeared in France.
7) During the Rococo period there was no more integration of architecture, painting and sculpture.
1) How is the word “Baroque” defined?
2) What are the main features of the Baroque?
3) What outstanding Baroque architects do you know?
4) When did the Rococo appear?
5) What are typical characteristics of the Rococo?
4. Use the clichés from ex. 5, p. 14 and write the retelling of the text “Baroque and Rococo”
High-tech style embraces an industrial look, in which the decor and the building itself are obviously very influenced by technology. High-tech buildings are often created from such materials as heavy steel girders25, a metal deck plate26, metal shelves often seen in hospitals and factories, and a concrete structure. The outside of the building, instead of being opaque27, is often made entirely of windows or mirrored glass, not stressing the decorative outside of the building but revealing the skeleton of the building itself.
High-tech style can be seen in almost any city in the world.
One of the most well-known examples of high-tech style is the Swiss Re building28 in London – more commonly known as The Gherkin29, because of its distinctive, peaked shape. Designed by British architect Norman Foster, the building is the sixth tallest in London, and stands out from the background of centuries-old buildings from miles around. The Gherkin was opened in 2004, and has been featured in a number of television shows and movies, quickly becoming one of London's most recognized modern symbols. Also in London is the Lloyd's Building, which is unique as all of its staircases, elevators, ventilation shafts and piping are on the outside of the building.
Another well-known example is the Bank of China Tower, located in Hong Kong. Designed by architect I.M. Pei, the building was designed to resemble tall, slender shoots of bamboo.
^ in Paris, France, is the home to a massive library, as well as to IRCAM30, a centre for music research. Color-coded pipes and ventilation shafts figure predominantly on the outside of the building.
^ also displays a unique high-tech style, with steel cables and domes of glass that were designed to represent mountains and a newer, more modern Germany.
High-tech style made its first appearances after World War II. Much of Europe – from England all the way across the continent – had been ravaged31 by war, leaving countless buildings destroyed. When the time came to rebuild, designers and architects replaced many of the old edifices32 with ones done in a forward-thinking, new style that was intended to show something new rising from the ashes of destruction.
Also, the postwar era was a time when scientific advances were taking the world by storm, from advances in industrial and medical practices to science and technology. This new world was undeniable33, and was reflected heavily in the buildings that were being developed at the time.
The name "high-tech style" came about in 1978, and was coined34 by a pair of home-design specialists: Joan Kron and Suzanne Slesin. Their book, "High Tech: The Industrial Style and Source Book for The Home," shared ideas for bringing the high-tech look into the home.
High-tech style isn't just for the outside of a building; it's also hugely popular indoors as well.
The style stresses an industrial look. Pipes can be worked into the decor of the home, instead of hidden in a cupboard or closet. Elements of a high-tech room can include factory lighting; partial room dividers made of glass bricks; warehouse or hospital shelving35 painted in flamboyant colors; work benches for countertops36; and office chairs for furniture. Steel appliances and even dishes can accent the style, as can geometric patterns in floors and walls.
High-tech style came about when architects and designers were looking for a way to liven up modern architecture. In many places, any sort of modern architecture had been replaced with economy buildings, as well as homes, apartment buildings and office buildings that appeared to have been made from a mold37. The high-tech style not only showed a rebellious attitude on the part designers who were willing to try something completely different, but also displayed impressive faith in what was to come. Technological advances were on everyone's mind, and this high-tech style leaned away from traditional architecture and more toward science fiction and the world of tomorrow.
1) When did the high-tech style appear?
2) What are the typical features of this style?
3) What are the most famous architectural models constructed in this style?
4) What are the main characteristics of high-tech interior?
Use the answers from this exercise, the phrases from ex.3, p.7 and retell the text “High-tech style”
Read and retell the text
Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasized and glorified themes associated with contemporary concepts of the future, including speed, technology, youth and violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane and the industrial city. It was largely an Italian phenomenon, though there were parallel movements in Russia, England and elsewhere. The Futurists practiced in every medium of art, including painting, sculpture, ceramics, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, theatre, film, fashion, textiles, literature, music, architecture and even gastronomy.
Key figures of the movement include the Italians Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Gino Severini, Giacomo Balla, Antonio Sant’Elia, Tullio Crali and Luigi Russolo, and the Russians Natalia Goncharova, Velimir Khlebnikov, and Vladimir Mayakovsky. Important works include its seminal piece of the literature, Marinetti’s Manifesto of Futurism, as well as Boccioni’s sculpture, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, and Balla’s painting, Abstract Speed + Sound (pictured). Futurism influenced art movements such as Art Deco, Constructivism, Surrealism, Dada38, and to a greater degree, Rayonism39 and Vorticism40.
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