Методические указания по дисциплине «Английский язык»




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НазваниеМетодические указания по дисциплине «Английский язык»
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Aircraft structure / Horizontal Stabilizer. Landing Gear. Lift

Horizontal Stabilizer -- The horizontal stabilizer is a fixed position airfoil that stabilizes the pitch of the airplane. When a wing produces lift, it also develops a force that tries to pitch the airplane forward. The horizontal stabilizer prevents this unwanted pitch from occurring.

Gravity -- Gravity is the attractive force from the earth that acts upon all mass. It is one of the four principles of flight.

Landing Gear -- On conventional aircraft, the Landing Gear consists of wheels or tires with supports (struts) and shock absorbers which help in takeoff and landing. To reduce drag while the plane is flying, most wheels fold up into the body of the plane after takeoff. On many smaller aircraft, the wheels do not fold up after takeoff.

Lift -- An upward force that causes an object to rise. In aircraft it may be produced by downward-facing propellers, or by a moving wing with an airfoil shape (the specially curved shape of an airplane wing). Lift is one of the four basic principles of flight. Forces are produced by the wing as the air flows around it. Lift is the part that is perpendicular to the relative wind. The other part contributes to drag.

stabilizer – стабилизатор

fixed position airfoil – фиксированная аэродинамическая поверхность

the pitch – движение тангажа

lift – подъёмная сила (вертикальная тяга)

to pitch – делать крен (движение тангажа)

to prevent – предотвратить

occurring – процесс свершения

gravity – сила тяжести

attractive force – сила притяжения

Landing Gear – посадочное устройство

сonventional – традиционный

supports (struts) – опоры (амортизаторы)


shock absorbers – амортизаторы ударов

to reduce drag – сократить ?силу сопротивления

fold up – свёртываться, закрываться

upward force – направленная вверх (восходящая) сила

to rise – подниматься

downward-facing propellers – обращённые вниз воздушные винты

an airfoil shape – форма аэродинамического профиля

curved shape – изогнутая форма

to flow – лить потоком, плавно течь

the relative wind – соответствующий (релевантный) ветер

contributes to drag – способствует торможению (сопротивлению)



№ 6

^ Aircraft structure / Pitch. Propeller. Rudder.

Pitch -- The angle between the airplane's body (lengthwise) and the ground. An airplane going straight up would have a pitch attitude of ninety degrees and one in level flight, about zero degrees.

Relative Wind -- The direction that the air is going as it passes the airplane relative to the airplane. Relative wind has nothing to do with the wind speed on the ground.

Propeller -- This part of the plane produces thrust or forward movement necessary to sustain flight. This turning blade on the front of an airplane moves it through the air.

Roll -- Roll is the tilting motion the airplane makes when it turns.

Rudder -- The Rudder, controlled by the rudder pedals, is the hinged part on the back of the tail which helps to turn the aircraft. It is the vertical part of the tail which controls the sideways movement of the airplane, called the yaw. The least used of all controls, most flying can be safely accomplished without it. (One exception is landing with a crosswind; yaw induced by the rudder must be used to keep the fuselage aligned with the runway and prevent an excursion into the grass.)

Stall -- What a wing does when a given angle of attack is exceeded (the stall angle of attack).

№ 7

^ Aircraft structure / Stall. Tail. Thrust. Trim. Vertical Stabilizer.

Stall -- What a wing does when a given angle of attack is exceeded (the stall angle of attack). The stall is characterized by a progressive loss of lift for an increase in angle of attack.

Tail -- The Tail has many movable parts. The pilot controls these parts from the cockpit. Included in the parts on the Tail are the rudder and the elevators.

Thrust -- The force produced by the engines, thrust works opposite of and counteracts drag. Thrust is the forward movement that is necessary to sustain flight. It is one of the four basic principles of flight.

Trim -- When the controls are moved from neutral, it takes a certain amount of pressure to hold them in position in the airflow. Trim gets rid of this pressure and effectively changes the "center" of the controls - or the neutral position where there is no stick pressure.

Vertical Stabilizer -- The vertical stabilizer is the yaw stabilizer for the airplane; it keeps the nose of the airplane (as seen from above) pointed into the relative wind.

Weight -- The force produced by the mass of the airplane interacting with the earth's gravitational field; the force that must be counteracted by lift in order to maintain flight.
№ 8

^ Aircraft structure / Weight.
Weight -- The force produced by the mass of the airplane interacting with the earth's gravitational field; the force that must be counteracted by lift in order to maintain flight.

Basic Weight - The weight of the basic aircraft plus guns, unusable fuel, oil, ballast, survival kits, oxygen, and any other internal or external equipment that is on board the aircraft and will not be disposed of during flight.

Operating Weight - Is the sum of basic weight and items such as crew, crew baggage, steward equipment, pylons and racks, emergency equipment, special mission fixed equipment, and all other nonexpendable5 items not in basic weight.

Gross Weight - Is the total weight of an aircraft, including its contents and externally mounted items, at any time.

Landing Gross Weight - Is the weight of the aircraft, its contents, and external items when the aircraft lands.

Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW) - Is the weight of the aircraft without any usable fuel. This is due to structural limitations of aircraft.

Wing -- The Wings are the "arms" of the airplane. They provide the principal lifting force of the airplane. They hold the plane aloft by creating lift from the air rushing over them.

№ 9

^ Aircraft structure / Wing. Yaw. Lift. Airfoils.

Wing -- The Wings are the "arms" of the airplane. They provide the principal lifting force of the airplane. They hold the plane aloft by creating lift from the air rushing over them. Like all plane parts, the Wings should be light and strong, but also flexible to absorb sudden gusts of wind.

Yaw -- The angle between the fuselage of the airplane and the relative wind as seen from above the airplane. Yaw is the term pilots use to describe the turning left or right of the plane. Yaw is the sideways movement of the plane. Normally an airplane is flown without yaw.

Lift is the aerodynamic force that supports an aircraft in flight, due to the airflow over the wings or body. Drag is the resistance a vehicle moving through the air experiences, and pitching1 moments are a result of aerodynamic forces that make the nose of an aircraft move either up or down.

Airfoils -- The shape of a wing looks like an elongated water drop laying on its side. This shape is referred to as an airfoil. Usually the top is curved more than the bottom making the upper surface slightly longer than the bottom. Since air passing over the top and bottom must reach the rear of the wing at the same time, the air passing over the top must not only travel faster, but also changes direction and is deflected downward.

№ 10

Aircraft structure / Lift and Drag. The chord line.
Lift and Drag -- The wing makes its "magic" by forcing the air down. Some people like to compare it to water skiing, where water skis and speed are used to force the water down and the skier up. But that analogy tells only part of the story. Most of the time, the top of the wing does the majority of the "pushing" on the air (actually, in this case, "pulling" the air down). The top and the bottom of the wing combine to produce a force, and the part of this force perpendicular to the relative wind is lift. Since the wing not only pushes the air down but slows it down as well, some drag (induced drag) is caused.

The chord line is an imaginary line drawn from the leading edge to the trailing edge of an airfoil. Secondly, the relative wind is the airflow which acts on the airfoil and is paralell to but opposite the direction of flight. The angle between the chord line and the relative wind is called the angle of attack, which is called "alpha." As the angle of attack increases, the change of vertical momentum increases. Additionally, as the angle of attack increases, the coefficient of lift (CL) increases. The result is an increase in lift. However, there are limits to how much the angle of attack can be increased.
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