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Сборник технических текстов для домашнего чтения по английскому
языку: методические указания по дисциплине «Английский язык» для
студентов дневной формы обучения специальности 16020165 / сост.
М. А. Морозова. – Ульяновск: УлГТУ, 2005. – 71 с.
Тексты начинаются со следующей страницы.
Aircraft structure / Angle of Attack. Ailerons.
All aircrafts are built with the same basic elements: wings to provide lift, engine(s) to provide motive power, a fuselage to carry the payload and controls, and a tail assembly which usually controls the direction of flight. These elements differ in shape, size, number, and position. The differences distinguish one aircraft type from another.
Angle of Attack (AOA) The angle between the wing and the relative wind. When all else is held constant, an increase in AOA results in an increase in lift. This increase continues until the stall. AOA is reached then the trend reverses itself and an increase in AOA results in decreased lift.
Ailerons -- Located on the outer part of the wing, the ailerons help the airplane turn. Ailerons are control surfaces which are used to change the bank of the airplane, or roll the airplane. As the ailerons hinge down on one wing, they push the air downwards, making that wing tilt up. This tips the airplane to the side and helps it turn. This tipping is known as Banking. They are manipulated from the cockpit by moving the control column (stick) left and right. Right movement rolls the airplane to the right and vice versa. Roll speed is proportional to the amount of stick deflection.
Airfoil Section -- is the cross-sectional shape of the wing. The airfoil section shape and placement on the fuselage are directly linked to the airplanes performance.
Bank Angle -- The angle between the wings and the horizon, as viewed from the rear of the airplane. An airplane with its wings level has zero degrees of bank.
Control Stick -- The ailerons are connected to the Control Stick which is located in cockpit.
Cockpit -- Where the pilot sits. All of the controls and instruments are located here.
Banking -- Pushing the control stick in the cockpit to the left or right makes the ailerons on one wing go down and the ailerons on the other wing go up. This makes the plane tip to the left or right. This is called Banking. Banking makes the plane turn. Like a bicycle, the plane tilts, or banks, as it turns. This process is also called roll.
Drag -- One of the four basic principles of flight. Drag is the force encountered as an airplane pushes through the air, which tends to slow the airplane down. There are two types of drag, and an airplane must fight its way through both kinds of drag in order to maintain steady flight.
Profile or parasite drag is the same kind of drag experienced from all objects in a flow.
Profile or parasite drag is the same kind of drag experienced from all objects in a flow. This type of drag is caused by the airplane pushing the air out of the way as it moves forward.
The other type, called “induced” drag," is the result of the production of lift (you can’t get something for nothing!). This drag is the part of the force produced by the wing that is parallel to the relative wind. Objects that create lift must also overcome this induced drag, also known as drag-due-to-lift. Skin friction is a function of the surface area wetted by the airstream. Any increase in surface area will increase skin friction drag. The other component of profile drag is pressure drag.
Pressure drag is a function of the size of the wake behind an object in an airstream; it can be reduced by streamlining the object in order to delay separation of the flow.
Elevators -- The Elevators are movable flaps attached to the horizontal stabilizer used to change the angle of attack of the wing which will, in turn, change the pitch, moving the airplane up and down. It is operated by moving the control stick forward or backward, which in turn moves the elevator down or up, respectively.
№ 4 ^
Engine -- This part of the plane produces thrust or forward movement necessary to sustain flight. Thrust is one of the four basic rules behind plane flight. The engine turns the propeller.
Flaps -- Located on the inner part of the wing, the Flaps help the plane fly slower. This helps to increase the lifting force of the wing at slower speeds, like during takeoff and landing. These slower speeds make takeoff and landing distances shorter. The Flaps slide back and forth, and are controlled by a lever in the cockpit. Flaps are moved down from a streamlined position to increase the amount of lift produced at a particular airspeed.
Fuselage -- The Fuselage is the central "body" of the plane. The wings, tail and engines are all attached to it. In a modern passenger airplane, you sit only in the top half of the Fuselage. The Fuselage also houses the cockpit where all the controls necessary for operating and controlling the plane are located. Cargo is also housed in the bottom half of the Fuselage. The Fuselage is generally streamlined as much as possible.
Horizontal Stabilizer -- The horizontal stabilizer is a fixed position airfoil that stabilizes the pitch of the airplane.
«Английский язык» для студентов дневной формы обучения специальности 16020165 / сост
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